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Ash

Ash (Fraxinus sp.) is composed of 40 to 70 species, with 21 in Central and North America and 50 species in Eurasia. All species look alike microscopically. The name fraxinus is the classical Latin name for ash.

Species

  • Fraxinus americana*- American White Ash, Biltmore Ash, Biltmore White Ash, Canadian Ash, Cane Ash, Green Ash, Ground Ash, Mountain Ash, Quebec Ash, Red Ash, Smallseed White Ash, White Ash, White River Ash, White Southern Ash
  • Fraxinus anomala-Dwarf Ash, Singleleaf Ash
  • Fraxinus berlandierana-Berlandier Ash, Mexican Ash
  • Fraxinus caroliniana-Carolina Ash, Florida Ash, Pop Ash, Swamp Ash, Water Ash
  • Fraxinus cuspidata-Flowering Ash, Fragrant Ash
  • Fraxinus dipetala-California Flwoering Ash, California Shrub Ash, Foothill Ash, Flowering Ash, Fringe-flowering Ash, Mountain Ash, Two-petal Ash
  • Fraxinus gooddingii-Goodding Ash
  • Fraxinus greggii?-Dogleg Ash, Gregg Ash, Littleleaf Ash
  • Fraxinus latifolia*-Basket Ash, Oregon Ash, Water Ash, White Ash
  • Fraxinus nigra*-American Black Ash, Basket Ash, Black Ash, Brown Ash, Canadian Ash, Hoop Ash, Splinter Ash, Swamp Ash, Water Ash
  • Fraxinus papillosa-Chihuahua Ash
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica*-Bastard Ash, Black Ash, Blue Ash, Brown Ash, Canadian Ash, Darlington Ash, Gray Ash, Green Ash, Piss Ash, Pumpkin Ash, Red Ash, Rim Ash, River Ash, Soft Ash,?Swamp Ash, Water Ash, White Ash
  • Fraxinus profunda*-Pumpkin Ash, Red Ash
  • Fraxinus quadrangulata*-Blue Ash, Virginia Ash
  • Fraxinus texensis-Texas Ash
  • Fraxinus velutina-Arizona Ash, Desert Ash, Leatherleaf Ash, Modesto Ash, Smooth Ash, Toumey Ash, Velvet Ash

(* commercial species)

Distribution

The north temperate regions of the globe.

The Tree

Ashes are trees or shrubs with large, opposite, pinnately compound leaves, which are shed in the fall. The compound leaves have 2 to 11 leaflets. The flowers can be bisexual or there can be distinct male and female flowers on separate trees. The flowers have no petals and the fruits are dry with a flattened wing.

The Wood

General

The sapwood of ash is light brown, while the heartwood is brown to grayish brown. White as and Oregon ash have lighter heartwood than the other commercial species. The width of the sapwood is 3 to 6 inches. It is ring porous, with the latewood being composed of parenchyma which surrounds and unites the latewood pores in tangential bands. It has no characteristic odor or taste.

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

Compression
Specific

gravity

MOE

X106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

F. americana (white ash)
Green 0.55 1.44 9,600 3,990 670 15.7 960 1,350
Dry 0.60 1.74 15,000 7,410 1,160 16.6 1,320 1,910
F.latifolia (Oregon ash)
Green 0.50 1.13 7,600 3,510 530 12.2 790 1,190
Dry 0.55 1.36 12,700 6,040 1,250 14.4 1,160 1,790
F. nigra (black ash)
Green 0.45 1.04 6,000 2,300 350 12.1 520 860
Dry 0.49 1.60 12,600 5,970 760 14.9 850 1,570
F. pennsylvanica (green ash)
Green 0.53 1.40 9,500 4,200 730 11.8 870 1,260
Dry 0.56 1.66 14,100 7,080 1,310 14.9 1,200 1,910
F. profunda (pumpkin ash)
Green 0.48 1.04 7,600 3,360 990 9.4 750 1,210
Dry 0.52 1.27 11,100 5,690 1,800 8.0 990 1,720
F. quadrangulata (blue ash)
Green 0.53 1.24 9,600 4,180 810 14.7 1,030 1,540
Dry 0.58 1.40 13,800 6,980 1,420 14.4 2,030 2,030
aWML = Work to maximum load.
bReference (98).
cReference (59).


Kiln Drying Schedulea

Stock
Condition 4/4, 5/4, 6/4 8/4 10/4 12/4 16/4
Standard T8-D4 T5-B3 T5-B3