Maple (Acer spp.)
contains about 120 species native to Asia [16], North America [13],
Mexico and Guatemala [1], and the European/Mediterranean region [6], with
the rest in Eurasia, Malaysia and northern Africa. The Maples can be
separated into two groups based on the ray widths of their microscopic
anatomy, the soft maple group and the hard maple group. Species within
each group look alike microscopically. Acer is the classical Latin
name of maple.
 Acer barbatum hammock
maple, Florida maple, southern sugar maple, sugar maple
 Acer circinatum vine
maple, mountain maple
 Acer glabrumbark maple,
California mountain maple, Douglas maple, dwarf maple, mountain maple, New
Mexico maple, rocky mountain maple, shrubby maple,
sierra maple, soft maple
 Acer grandidentatum bigtooth
maple, canyon maple, hard maple, largetoothed maple, sugar
maple, ultravioletalde bigtooth maple, western sugar maple
 Acer leucodermchalk
maple, palebark maple, sugar maple, whitebark maple
 Acer macrophyllum*
bigleaf, bigleaf maple, broadleaf maple, broadleaved maple,
bugleaf maple, Californian maple, Oregon maple, pacific maple, white maple
 Acer negundo*?ash maple,
ashleaf maple, black ash, boxelder, boxelder maple, California
boxelder, cutleaved maple, inland boxelder, manitoba maple, negundo
maple, red river maple, stinking ash, sugar ash, threeleaved maple,
western boxelder
 Acer nigrum* black
maple, black sugar maple, hard maple, rock maple, sugar maple,
white maple
 Acer pennsylvaticum
buckwood, goosefoot maple, moosewood, mountain alder, northern maple,
Pennsylvanian maple, striped dogwood, striped maple,
whistlewood
 Acer rubrum*?Carolina red
maple, drummond maple, drummond red maple, Oregon maple, red maple,
scarlet maple, shoepeg maple, silver maple, soft maple, southern soft
maple, swamp maple, threepointedleaf maple, threetoothed red maple,
water maple, white maple
 Acer saccharinum* creek
maple, papascowood, river maple, silver maple, silverleaf
maple, soft maple, swamp maple, water maple, white maple
 Acer saccharum*
bird'seye maple, black maple, curly maple, hard maple, rock maple,
rough maple, sugar, sugar maple, sugartree, sweet maple,
thumbnail maple
 Acer spicatum?goosefoot
maple, low maple, moose maple, mountain maple, mountain
maplebush, spiked maple, water maple
*commercial species
Distribution
Throughout most of North America, with
commercial species in the eastern United States and Canada and the western
coast of the United States (bigleaf maple).
The Tree
Maples grow to heights of 120 ft (36 m),
with a diameter of 3 ft (1 m). Forest grown trees may have a clear bole of
60 ft (18 m).
The Wood
General
Maple lumber comes principally from the
Middle Atlantic and Lake States, which together account for about
twothirds of the production. The wood of sugar maple and black maple is
known as hard maple; that of silver maple, red maple, and boxelder as soft
maple. The sapwood of the maples is commonly white with a slight
reddishbrown tinge; the heartwood is light reddish brown, but sometimes
is considerably darker. The sapwood is from 3 to 5+ inches (76 to 127+ mm)
thick.
Hard maple has a fine, uniform texture,
turns well on a lathe, is resistant to abrasion and has no characteristic
odor or taste. It is heavy, strong, stiff, hard, and resistant to shock,
and it has large shrinkage. Sugar maple is generally straight grained but
the grain also occurs as "birdseye," "curly," and
"fiddleback" grain.
The wood of soft maples resembles that
of hard maples but is not as heavy, hard and strong, the better grade of
soft maple has been substituted for hard maple in furniture. The sapwood
in the soft maples is considerably wider than that in the hard maples and
has a lighter heartwood color.
Maple lumber sometimes has olive or
greenish black discolored areas known as mineral streak or mineral stain,
which may be due to injury. Maple wood stains well and takes a high
polish. It is intermediate in gluing and has low decay resistance.
Mechanical Properties (2inch
standard)




Compression 




Specific
gravity

MOE
X10^{6} lbf/in^{2}

MOR
lbf/in^{2}

Parallel
lbf/in^{2}

Perpendicular
lbf/in^{2}

WML^{a}
inlbf/in^{3}

Hardness
lbf

Shear
lbf/in^{2}

Acer
macrophyllum (bigleaf
maple) 
Green 
0.44 
1.1 
7,400 
3,240 
450 
8.7 
620 
1,110 
Dry 
0.48 
1.45 
10,700 
5,950 
750 
7.8 
850 
1,730 
Acer
nigrum (black maple) 
Green 
0.52 
1.33 
7,900 
3,270 
600 
12.8 
840 
1,130 
Dry 
0.57 
1.62 
1,330 
6,680 
1,020 
12.5 
1,180 
1,820 
Acer
pennsylvaticum (striped
maple) 
Green 
0.44 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dry 
0.46 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acer
rubrum (red maple) 
Green 
0.49 
1.39 
7,700 
3,280 
400 
11.4 
700 
1,150 
Dry 
0.54 
1.64 
13,400 
6,540 
1,000 
12.5 
950 
1,850 
Acer
saccharinum (silver
maple) 
Green 
0.44 
0.94 
5,800 
2,490 
370 
11.0 
590 
1,050 
Dry 
0.47 
1.14 
8,900 
5,220 
740 
8.3 
700 
1,480 
Acer
saccharum (silver
maple) 
Green 
0.56 
1.55 
9,400 
4,020 
640 
13.3 
970 
1,460 
Dry 
0.63 
1.83 
15,800 
7,830 
1,470 
16.5 
1,450 
2,330 
^{a}WML = Work to maximum load.
^{b}Reference (98).
^{c}Reference (59).

Kiln Drying Schedules^{a}
 