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Relative Hardness Table

Janka Numbers For Domestic & Exotic Wood Species

The Janka Side Hardness test measures the force required to press an 11.28mm (0.444 inch) steel ball to half its diameter cross-grain into a block of wood. This force is recorded in both pounds-force (lbf) and kilo-Newtons (kN).

We have found this to be one of the best measures of the ability of wood species to withstand denting and wear. It is also a good indicator of how hard a species is to saw, nail, or machine. If you know the optimum feed-rate to use on one species of wood, you can "guesstimate" the feed-rate to use on another type of wood by comparing the Janka numbers. For more on this, go to Guesstimating Feed Rates.

For more information on Janka testing, go to: For one of the most comprehensive sources on wood preperties, go to:
Janka Test

The higher the number the harder the wood


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
Common name Scientific name Janka Hardness
(kN) (lbf)
afrormosia Pericopsis elata
6.9
1,560
albarco Cariniana spp.
4.5
1,020
alder, European Alnus glutinosa
2.9
650
alder, red Alnus rubra
2.6
590
alder, Nepalese Alnus nepalensis 
7.4
1,690
alder, white Alnus rhombifolia
5.9
1,320
andiroba Carapa guianensis
5.0
1,130
angelin Andira inermis
7.8
1,750
angelique Dicorynia guianensis
5.7
1,290
anime Protium spp.
4.1
920
apple Malus sylvestris
7.7
1,730
ash, black Fraxinus nigra
3.8
850
ash, blue Fraxinus quadrangulata
9.0
2,030
ash, green Fraxinus pennsylvanica
5.3
1,200
ash, oregon Fraxinus latifolia
5.2
1,160
ash, pumpkin Fraxinus profunda
4.4
990
ash, white Fraxinus americana
5.9
1,320
aspen, bigtooth Populus grandidentata
1.9
420
aspen, quaking Populus tremuloides
1.6
350
avodire Turraeanthus africanus
4.8
1,080
azobe Lophira alata
14.9
3,350
baldcypress Taxcodium distichum
2.3
570
balsa Ochroma pyramidale
0.4
90
banak Virola spp.
2.3
510
basswood, American Tilia americana
1.8
410
basswood, Carolina Tilia caroliniana
1.8
410
basswood, white Tilia heterophylla
beech, American Fagus grandifolia
5.8
1,300
benge Guibourtia arnoldiana
7.8
1,750
birch, gray Betula populifolia
3.4
760
birch, paper Betula papyrifera
4.0
910
birch, river Betula nigra
5.6
1,260
birch, sweet Betula lenta
6.5
1,470
birch, yellow Betula alleghaniensis
5.6
1,260
bloodwood, conduru, cardinal wood Brosimum rubescens
14.0
2,900
boxelder Acer negundo
3.2
720
bubinga Guibourtia spp.
12.0
2,690
buckeye, Ohio Aesculus glabra
buckeye, yellow Aesculus octandra
1.6
350
buckthorn, cascara Rhamnus purshiana
4.6
1,040
bulletwood Manilkara bidentata
14.2
3,190
butternut Juglans cinerea
2.2
490
buttonwood Conocarpus erectus
catalpa, northern Catalpa speciosa
2.4
550
catalpa, southern Catalpa bignonioides
2.4
550
cativo Prioria copaifera
2.8
630
cedar, Alaska Chamaecyparis nootkatensis
2.6
580
cedar, atlantic white Chamaecyparis thyoides
1.6
350
cedar, Port Orford Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
3.2
720
cedar, yellow Cupressus nootkatensis
2.6
580
ceiba Ceiba pentandra
1.1
240
chalviande Virola spp.
2.1
481
cherry, black, American Prunus serotina
4.2
950
cherry, Brazilian Castenea dentata
10.4
2,350
cherry, wild, European Prunus avium
5.1
1,150
chestnut, American Castenea dentata
2.4
540
chinkapin, giant Castanopsis chrysophylla
3.2
730
coffeetree, Kentucky Gymnocladus dioicus
6,2
1,390
cottonwood - balsam poplar Populus balsamifera
1.3
300
cottonwood, black Populus trichocarpa
1.6
350
cottonwood, eastern Populus deltoides
1.9
430
courbaril Hymenaea courbaril
10.5
2,350
cuangare Dialyanthera spp.
1.7
380
cypress, Australian Callitris glaucophylla
6.0
1,375
cypress, Mexican Cupressus lustianica
2.0
460
degame Calycophyllum candidissimum
8.6
1,940
determa Ocotea rubra
2.9
660
dogwood, flowering Cornus florida
9.6
2,150
Douglas-fir, coast Pseudotsuga menziesii
3.2
710
Douglas-fir, interior west Pseudotsuga menziesii
2.9
660
Douglas-fir, interior north Pseudotsuga menziesii
2.7
600
Douglas-fir, interior south Pseudotsuga menziesii
2.3
510
ebony, African, Gaboon, Nigerian Diospyros crassiflora
14.1
3,220
ebony, black and white, pale moon Diospyros malabarica
7.9
1,790
ebony, Ceylon, East Indian Diospyros cebenum
10.8
2,430
ebony, Macassar, striped Diospyros celebica
14.1
3,220
ebony, mun Diospyros mun
13.4
3,000
ebony, persimmon, white Diospyros virginiana
10.2
2,300
ekop Tetraberlinia tubmaniana
4.1
910
elder, blue Sambucus cerulea
3.7
840
elm, american Ulmus americana
3.7
830
elm, cedar Ulmus crassifolia
5.9
1,320
elm, rock Ulmus thomasii
5.9
1,320
elm, slippery Ulmus rubra
3.8
860
elm, winged Ulmus alata
6.8
1,540
fir, balsam Abies balsamea
1.8
400
fir, California red Abies magnifica
2.2
500
fir, grand Abies grandis
2.2
490
fir, noble Abies procera
1.8
410
fir, pacific silver Abies amabilis
1.9
430
fir, subalpine Abies lasiocarpa
1.6
350
fir, white Abies concolor
2.1
480
goncalo alves Astronium graveolens
9.6
2,160
granadillo Platymiscium yucatanum
10.9
2,450
greenheart Chlorocardium rodiei
10.5
2,350
hackberry Celtis occidentalis
3.9
880
hackberry, netleaf Celtis reticulata
(hackberry) sugarberry Celtis laevigata
hemlock, eastern Tsuga canadensis
2.2
500
hemlock, mountain Tsuga mertensiana
3.0
680
hemlock, western Tsuga heterophylla
2.4
540
hickory, bitternut Carya cordiformis
6.7
1,500
hickory, black Carya texana
hickory, nutmeg Carya myristicaeformis
hickory, pecan Carya illinoensis
8.1
1820
hickory, sand Carya pallida
hickory, water Carya aquatica
6.9
1,550
hickory. mockernut Carya tomentosa
8.8
1,970
hickory, pignut Carya glabra
9.5
2,140
hickory, shagbark Carya ovata
8.4
1,880
hickory, shellbark Carya lacinosa
8.1
1,810
holly, American Ilex opaca
4.5
1,020
honeylocust Gleditsia triacanthos
7.0
1,580
hophornbeam, eastern Ostrya virginiana
8.3
1,860
hornbeam, American Carpinus caroliniana
7.9
1,780
hura Hura crepitans
2.4
550
ilomba Pycnanthus angolensis Exell
2.7
610
incense-cedar Libocedrus decurrens
2.1
470
ipe Handroanthus spp. (lapacho group), Brazilian walnut
15.6
3,510
iroko Chlorophora spp.
5.6
1,260
jarrah Eucalyptus marginata
8.5
1,910
jelutong Dyera costulata
1.7
(@15%)
390
juniper, alligator Juniperus deppeana
5.2
1,160
juniper, western Juniperus occidentalis
kaneelhart Licaria spp.
12.9
2,900
kapur Dryobalanops spp.
5.5
1,230
karri Eucalyptus diversicolor
9.1
2,040
kempas Koompassia malaccensis
7.6
1,710
keruing Dipterocarpus spp.
5.6
1,270
larch, western Larix occidentalis
3.7
830
laurel, California Umbellularia californica
5.6
1,270
laurel, mountain Kalmia latifolia
8.0
1,790
lignumvitae Guaiacum spp.
20.0
4,500
limba Terminalia superba
2.2
490
locust, black Robinia pseudoacacia
7.6
1,700
macawood Platymiscium spp.
14.0
3,150
"M" continued >>>
Common name Scientific name Janka Hardness
(kN) (lbf)
madrone, Pacific Arbutus menziesii
6.5
1,460
magnolia, cucumber tree Magnolia acuminata
3.1
700
magnolia, southern Magnolia grandiflora
4.5
1,020
magnolia, sweetbay Magnolia virginiana
3.6
810
mahogany, African Khaya spp.
3.7
830
mahogany, Santos, Cabreuva Myroxylon balsamum
9.8
2,200
mahogany, true Swietenia macrophylla
3.6
800
manbarklak Eschweilera spp.
15.5
3,480
manni Symphonia globulifera
5.0
1,120
maple, bigleaf Acer macrophyllum
3.8
850
maple, black Acer nigrum
5.2
1,180
maple, red Acer rubrum
4.2
950
maple, silver Acer saccharimum
3.1
700
maple, sugar (hard) Acer saccharum
6.4
1,450
marishballi Lincania spp.
15.9
3,570
merbau Intsia spp.
6.7
1,500
mersawa Anisoptera spp.
5.7
1,290
mesquite Prosopis spp.
10.4
2,345
mora Mora spp.
10.2
2,300
myrtlewood Umbellularia californica
5.65
1,270
oak, black Quercus velutina
5.4
1,210
oak, cherrybark Quercus falcata var pagodifolia
6.6
1,480
oak, southern red Quercus falcata
4.7
1,060
oak, laurel Quercus laurifolia
5.4
1,210
oak, northern red Quercus rubra
5.7
1,290
oak, pin Quercus palustris
6.7
1,510
oak, scarlet Quercus coccinea
6.2
1,400
oak, shumard Quercus shumardii
5.8
1,290
oak, water Quercus nigra
5.3
1,190
oak, willow Quercus phellos
6.5
1,460
oak, bur Quercus macrocarpa
6.1
1,370
oak, chestnut Quercus prinus
5.0
1,130
oak, live Quercus virginiana
12.9
2,680
oak, overcup Quercus lyrata
5.3
1,190
oak, post Quercus stellata
6.0
1,360
oak, swamp chestnut Quercus michauxii
5.5
1,240
oak, swamp white Quercus bicolor
7.2
1,620
oak, white Quercus alba
6.0
1,360
obeche Triplochiton scleroxylon
1.9
430
okoume Aucoumea klaineana
1.7
380
opepe Nauclea diderrichii
7.3
1,630
osage orange, horse apple Maclura pomifera
12.3
2,760
ovangkol Guibourtia ehie
5.9
1,330
pedauk - African Pterocarpus soyauxii
8.6
1970
para-angelim Hymenolobium excelsum
7.7
1,720
parana-pine Araucaria augustifolia
3.5
780
pau marfim, Patagonian maple Balfourodendron riedelianum
6.7
1,500
peroba de campos Paratecoma peroba
7.1
1,600
peroba rosa Aspidosperma spp., peroba group
7.7
1,730
persimmon, common Diospyros virginiana
10.2
2,300
pilon Hyeronima spp.
7.6
1,700
pine, Caribbean Pinus caribaea
5.5
1,240
pine, eastern white Pinus strobus
1.7
380
pine, heart Pinus resinosa
5.5
1,225
pine, jack Pinus banksiana
2.5
570
pine, Jeffrey Pinus jeffreyi
2.2
500
pine, limber Pinus flexilis
1.9
430
pine, loblolly Pinus taeda
3.1
690
pine, lodgepole Pinus contorta
2.1
480
pine, longleaf Pinus palustris
3.9
870
pine, ocote Pinus oocarpa
4.0
910
pine, pinyon Pinus edulis
3.8
860
pine, pitch Pinus rigida
2.8
620
pine, pond Pinus serotina
3.3
740
pine, ponderosa Pinus ponderosa
2.0
460
pine, Monterey Pinus radiata
3.3
750*
pine. red Pinus resinosa
2.5
560
pine, sand Pinus clausa
3.3
730
pine, shortleaf Pinus echinata
3.1
690
pine, slash Pinus elliotti
3.4
760
pine, spruce Pinus glabra
2.9
660
pine, sugar Pinus lambertiana
1.7
380
pine, Table Mountain Pinus pungens
2.9
660
pine, virginia Pinus virginiana
3.3
740
pine, western white Pinus monticola
1.9
420
piquia Caryocar spp.
7.7
1,720
poplar Liriodendron tulipifera
2.4
540
primavera Tabebula donnell-smithii
2.9
660
pulgande Dacryodes spp.
3.0
666
purpleheart Peltogyne spp.
8.3
1,860
ramin Gonystylus bancanus
5.8
1,300
red cedar, eastern  Juniperus virginiana
4.0
900
red cedar, southern Juniperus silicicola
2.7
610
red cedar, western  Thuja plicata 
1.6
350
redwood, old growth Sequoia sempervirens
2.1
480
redwood, second growth Sequoia sempervirens
1.9
420
robe Tabebul spp., roble group
4.3
960
rosewood, Brazilian Dalbergia nigra
12.1
2,720
rosewood, Indian Dalbergia latifolia
14.1
3,170
sajo Campnosperma panamensis
1.9
425
sande Brosimum spp., utile group
4.0
900
santa maria Calophyllum brasiliense
5.1
1,150
sapele Entandrophragma cylindricum
6.7
1510
sassafras Sassafras albidum
2.8
630
sepetir Pseudosindora palustris
6.3
1,410
serviceberry Amelanchier spp.
8.0
1,800
shorea Shorea spp., baulau group
7.9
1,780
shorea, dark red meranti Shorea spp., lauan-meranti group
3.5
780
shorea, light red meranti Shorea spp., lauan-meranti group
2.0
460
shorea, white meranti Shorea javanica, lauan-meranti group
5.7
1,140
shorea, yellow meranti Shorea spp., lauan-meranti group
3.4
770
silverbell, Carolina Halesia carolina
2.6
590
sourwood Oxydendrum arboreum
4.2
940
Spanish-cedar Cedrela spp.
2.7
600
spruce, black Picea mariana
2.3
520
spruce, Engelmann Picea engelmanni
1.7
390
spruce, red Picea rubra
2.2
490
spruce, Sitka Picea sitchensis
2.3
510
spruce, white Picea glauca
2.1
480
sucupira Bowdichia brasiliensis
12.2
2,750
sucupira Diplotropis purpurea
9.5
2,140
sumac, staghorn Rhus typhina
3.0
680
sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua
3.8
850
sycamore, american Platanus occidentalis
3.4
770
tamarack Larix laricina
2.6
590
tanoak Lithocarpus densiflorus
6.3
1,420
teak Tectona grandis
4.4
1,000
tornillo Cedrelinga cateniformis
10.2
2,299
tree-of-heaven Ailanthus altissima
7.7
1,731
tulapueta Osteophloeum platyspermum
2.3
512
tupelo, black Nyssa sylvatica
3.6
810
tupelo. water Nyssa aquatica
3.9
880
wallaba Eperua spp.
9.1
2,040
walnut, black Juglans nigra
4.5
1,010
wenge Millettia laurentii
8.4
1,930
white-cedar, northern Thuja occidentalis
1.4
320
willow, black Salix nigra
1.6
360
witch hazel Hamamelis virginica
6.8
1530
yellow poplar Liriodendron tulipifera
2.4
540
yew, Pacific Taxus brevifolia
7.1
1,600
 

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